Pelargonium cucullatum, the parent of many modern pelargonium
hybrids, is a tough and widespread shrub, growing on the sandy and
granite slopes along the Cape coast from Saldanha to Baardskeerdersbos.
When in flower the plants are covered with pinkish, purple flowers
and are the most conspicuous pelargoniums in the south western Cape,
especially when growing in dense masses. The plant was introduced
into cultivation in England by Bentick in 1690.
cucullatum is a fairly tall, sprawling shrub that grows to a
height of more than 2 m. The shrub is branched with the bottom of
the main stem becoming quite woody. The leaves are more or less
round or kidney-shaped and cupped, sometimes succulent. The species
name comes from the Latin cucullatus meaning "hood"
and refers to the shape of the cupped leaves. When crushed the leaves
of some forms emit a strong, sweet scent. The leaves are approximately
5-8 cm wide, turned upward, slightly incised and have reddish tips.
Both the stems and leaves are hairy.
flowers come in many shades, ranging from dark to light mauve and
pink Occasionally white forms are also found. The veins on the flowers
are streaked purple and are prominent on all five petals. Pelargonium
cucullatum flowers profusely for a month or two, any time from
September to February. The flowers are faintly scented. Sunbirds,
butterflies, long-beaked flies and moths have all been observed
visiting the flowers.
Traditionally this pelargonium was used medicinally to cure colic,
kidney ailments, diarrhoea, coughs and fevers. The leaves were used
as a poultice for bruises, stings and abscesses. In the nineteenth
century it was used as a hedge-row ornamental in Cape Town. It is
also useful as a cut flower as the branches last for many weeks
Pelargoniums are easily grown and fairly adaptable. They can be
propagated vegetatively and from seed. Pelargonium cucullatum
requires full sun and little attention once it is established.
Vegetative propagation by means of stem cuttings is the method
most widely used. Cuttings may be taken in autumn or summer from
a parent plant that is strong and healthy. The stem should be fairly
firm but not woody, most of the leaves and stipules should be removed
leaving only a few leaves intact on the top. If the leaves are large
they may be trimmed to reduce moisture loss. The cuttings should
be left to dry for a few hours before placing into the soil. The
cuttings should be rooted in trays filled with a well-drained medium
such as coarse river sand or planted directly into the ground. The
basal ends of the cutting should be dipped in a rooting hormone,
e.g. Serradix, to improve the rate of rooting, then inserted in
a prepared hole made by a dibber or a nail to avoid damaging the
The cuttings should be kept moist, but as this is a fairly drought
resistant plant you should avoid over watering or the cuttings might
damp off. Four to eight weeks later, after root formation, cuttings
should be fed with a seaweed extract product. One or two weeks after
this, the cuttings may be potted. Plants produced this way will
flower in approximately 3-6 months.
Pelargoniums can also be grown from seed. The seed of pelargoniums
is quite interesting in that attached to the elliptically shaped
seed, is a feathered tail-like structure that is coiled in a spiral.
The tail allows the seed to drill and secure itself in the soil
if twisted around by the wind or affected by the movement of the
Sow the seed in a light, well-drained soil which contains coarse
sand. Firm down gently to level the medium. Broadcast the seeds
evenly, covering them with a layer of clean white sand. The depth
of sowing is usually one -and -a - half times the size of the seed.
Water thoroughly but gently and provide light shade. Germination
usually takes place within 10 -14 days. Pelargoniums grown from
seed are generally more vigorous than those made of cuttings; however,
they take longer to flower.
Pelargonium cucullatum is a fast growing, tough shrub tolerant
to coastal conditions and also excellent for growing in containers
on a sunny patio, informal borders and rockeries.
Author: Liesl May
Horticulture Student: Kirstenbosch