This is a tree with a most unusual and apparently
unexplained feature. At certain times of the year the leaves emit
a smell resembling that of carrion. It can be quite strong at times
and could lead to a search for a dead animal in the vicinity. It
is quite hard to believe that it is coming from a tree!
wild apricot is widespread and occurs in bushveld and woodlands
especially in rocky areas. It also sometimes occurs in evergreen
forest margins. This tree is found in the more eastern parts of
South Africa and central and eastern Zimbabwe.
The name Dovyalis is based on a Greek word meaning "spear''
and the specific name, zeyheri, is in honour of K.L.P. Zeyher,
a German botanist who was active in South Africa in the early 19th
Dovyalis zeyheri is a small to medium sized, evergreen tree
growing from 2-13m. The stem can be single or multi-stemmed. The
bark is a light grey-brown, it becomes rough and flaking on older
trees. Young branches are covered with hairs and long, straight
spines are usually present. These may reach up to 60mm in length
and make this plant a good choice for planting along a perimeter
to prevent intruders from entering.
Spines are also a feature of Dovyalis caffra, the Kei apple,
which is another member of this genus often grown as a barrier plant.
These two plants are fairly similar, but the fruits of the Kei apple
are yellow, roundish and slightly larger than those of D. zeyheri.
The latter tends to grow into a tree, whereas the Kei apple usual
remains bushy. D. zeyheri also occurs naturally further north
than D. caffra which is centred in the Eastern Cape region.
leaves of D. zeyheri are glossy, dark green, alternate and
have a leathery texture. Young leaves are soft and velvety. The
flowers are small and greenish yellow. Male and female flowers are
borne on separate trees from August to December. The fruits are
found only on female trees. They are bright orange and oval in shape
with a velvety texture. They reach up to 25mm long and appear from
November to May.
The wild apricot is a good tree for wild fruit, the taste is sour
but refreshing and is eaten by people and animals. The fruit makes
a good jelly but some sweetening is required. Birds such as barbets,
louries, hornbills and mousebirds relish the fruit. The thorns which
provide protection for birds' nests, along with the fruit make this
an excellent wildlife garden tree. In the wild it is often found
growing on termite mounds in areas where the soil has a high clay
content. The caterpillars of the African Leopard Butterfly (Phalanta
phalantha) feed on the leaves.
Growing Dovyalis zeyheri
In the garden, the wild apricot is tolerant of moderate frost,
although young plants should be protected for the first two years.
It is also drought resistant and grows well in either full sun or
light shade. It grows well in sandy or loamy soil to which compost
has been added. The wild apricot is a moderate grower, putting on
up to 600 mm per year. If planting the wild apricot for the fruit
then it would be wise to plant several to make sure that at least
one is a female! It takes approximately three years for trees to
bear fruit. The wild apricot does not have an aggressive root system.
A female plant could make an interesting and colourful container
plant when in fruit.
Dovyalis zeyheri should be grown from seed. Fruit can be
collected when ripe, dried in a shady place and the seeds removed.
Alternatively eat the fleshy part and extract the seed that way!
Sow the seed in trays with clean river sand. The seed should be
pressed into the surface of the sand until they are level with it.
Cover with a thin layer of fine sand. Do not allow to dry out. Germination
may be erratic but usually occurs within 8 - 14 days. Seedlings
can be transplanted but should be watered very well for a week afterward.
- Palgraves, K.C. 1981. Trees of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers.
- Palmer, E and Pitman, N. 1972. Trees of Southern Africa: Volume
3. A.A. Balkema. Cape Town.
- Pooley, E. 1993. The Complete Field Guide to Trees of Natal,
Zululand & Transkei. Natal Flora Publications Trust. Durban
- Van Wyk, B and van Wyk, P. 1997. Field Guide to Trees of Southern
Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town.
- Venter, F and J-A. 1996. Making the most of Indigenous Trees.
Briza Publications. Pretoria.
Alice Aubrey & Moeketsi Letsela
Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden